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England

Trade with England is as old as the Icelandic settlement with Ireland beeing part of that trade.  London was known to the Icelandic traders as the center for quality and good prices.  It was in London we now call City of London, with all it´s trade unions and expertise, where the Icelandic traderes hoped to get the best prices for goods so special and rare as tusks of the Unicorn.  The road to London was often via Waterford in South Ireland, over to Bristol and from there over to London , or into County of Norfolk on Englands East coast near Lynn, the old trade place over to Bergen in Norway.  This is the part of England with many of the most famous monasteries buying the gold and silver from old Greenland.  It was in the City of London where the tusks where beeing transformed into Unicorn dust, coming from the mystical land of Virgins, careing for all the Unicorns, in the Land of the little Virgins, somewhere in old Greenland.  The supply of expensive hides of all sorts had a very disturbing affects on the German Hanseatic monopoly of supply coming out of  the port of Novagárd in Russia.

There is one very special story on record in England, the very first record of," Letter of Marque and Reprisal", to be found, dating to Oktober of the year 1293, this is also refered to as, Contraband arrests of ships.

"   Arrests of ships of Germany and Frisia driven by weather to Newcastle, Scarboraugh and Ravenser".  In all 12 ships on there way to Flanders.  In the year 1293 the city of Gravelines, Nieuwport, Damme, Biervliet, Dunkirk, Mardijk and Calais where part of Northern Normandy into Flanders, north of Flanders was Frisia or Freiland a famous Viking colony, north of that colony was Germany and the Cities of the  Habsburgers.

Flanders at this time in history was in war with Norman England and was of some called Little Spain in union with Navarra in Spain, better known as the land of the Basque.  Navarra was the center for all the crusades on the Moors in central Spain.

The 12 ships clame to be German on there way to Flanders, fooling the english to belive so, as the fleet was that from old Greenland.  It is the cargo revealing its origin.  There is given a cargo list of all goods as follows.

  "  Cargoes include:  Pitch and Tar, Tallow, Grease, Oil, Hides.  Skinns of various animals.  Hemp, Timber, Boards,=(ship and wainscot), Tiles, Iron, copper, Lances, Bowstaves.  Armour for the mercants and crew.  Corn, Peas, Linen, Canvas, Fish=(herring and stockfish).  Wax, Ashes and other goods not so easy to identify.  Strandelin was a fur of some kind.  Popel also fur or perhaps whail.  Skip=Routhskyns, seen to be rough hides, of which ropes where made, Russ whale skins de selynis, or sekjvis, or selyns are probable seal skins.  Selesmer, seal fat or blubber.  Buckefel may be dear skins, ostrit hawks, auger or algee, Pipes, Celdr pans.  Mader madder.  Black werk is unknown." 

And the document continues by counting all the items.

1.     20.060 boards.     2. 99 barrels of pitch and tar.  3.  281 casks of ashes.  4.  52 lasts and 19 dickers of hides and skins of oxen, horses, goats, seals, calves, lams.  5.  23 lasts of white herring in barrels.  6.  22 lasts of seal blubber and oil.  7.  45 barrels of butter.  8.  18 1/2 bundels of popel and strandelyn.  9.  500 hare skins.  10.  19 Fardels of hemp.  11.  2800 dried fish caled stock fish.  12.  1 peace of wax.  13.  4 young goshawks.  14.  300 bowstaves. 

 



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